Vehicle Systems And Maintenance
The Vehicle Frame And Body
purpose of a vehicle's frame is to support the body, engine, and
other parts of the car . The frame of the vehicle is one of the
most important parts of the car. It is the back bone of the
automobile. It provides structural integrity for the whole car.
- The frame itself is held up by the tires
and the suspension support system, which is what allows cars
to handle curves, pot holes, and uneven sections of the road.
Vehicle, Engine, and Mechanical Systems
- When You Start Your
power from the battery is
used to operate the starter motor so that it can turn the fly wheel and
the crank shaft. The crank shaft is an internal part of the engine which supplies power to the rest of the drive train. The crank
shaft is also connected to the piston rods, which are inside the
engine cylinders. A combination of air and fuel is compressed
to create an implosion, pushing the pistons up and down. The fuel and air
mixture is delivered by a carburetor and manifold, or fuel injection
system, and then the spark plug ignites the mixture.
- All moving parts of the engine must be lubricated with the
proper motor oil, such as 5-W-30, 10-W-30,10-w-40, or synthetic
motor oil. The oil will accumulates at the bottom of the engine, where the
oil pump pushes the oil thru an oil filter, then channels it thru the parts
of the engine that need to be lubricated.
The Fuel System
- The Gas Tank
is the storage unit where the fuel is kept. It is then pumped through the fuel
lines by a mechanical or electronic pump. It then travels thru the fuel
filter to the carburetor, or E. F. I. (Electronic Fuel
The Power Train
- The Tower Train
is a combination of mechanical components that
transfer power to the wheels.
These are the components;
- Engine or Motor The
internal combustion engine is a
machine that converts heat energy derived from fuel into
- Transmission The speed and power changing device
in the power train that provides different gear ratios between
the engine and the drive wheels, plus a reverse gear for backing
up the car .The transmission multiplies engine torque when the
car is accelerated from a stop or is climbing a hill. When
cruising on a relatively level road surface it trades torque
power for higher wheel speeds and a reduction in engine speed.
Differential A gear
system that transfers power from a driveshaft, or transmission, to
the driving axle or half shaft. It permits the outer driving
wheel to turn faster than the inside wheel when the car is
turning. This helps to prevent skidding and tire scrub.
- Four-Wheel Drive
four wheel drive vehicles the power is transmitted to the
transfer case by the transmission. The transfer case shifts power to the rear wheels, the front wheels, or
both front and rear wheels.
- Front Wheel
Drive In front wheel drive
vehicles the power is transmitted from the engine thru a
combination transmission-differential, and then the power is
directed to the front wheels.
In a rear wheel-drive, or four wheel-drive vehicle, the driveshaft is a long hollow
shaft, with universal joints at both ends, that carries power from
the transmission to the differential. It runs along the cars
longitudinal centerline. Also called a propeller
shaft or prop shaft.
- Wheels The wheel
is the circular, rigid metal frame consisting of a center section
and a rim that connects the hub of a vehicle to a tire in a
fixed but not permanent way.
Tires A rubber
covering fitted to a wheel usually containing compressed air to
support a vehicle's load .The acceleration , braking , and
cornering forces acting on a vehicle are resisted by the tires.
you should all ways rotate your tires and maintain tire
your vehicle's manual, or with your local tire dealer, for specific
tires for your vehicle.
The Exhaust System
- The Exhaust
System was developed for
the reduction of noise that an engine produces. It is also used to control harmful emissions (smog) produced by cars. Some of the more important
components are the muffler (muffles sound) and the catalytic converter (helps eliminate smog).
Manifold is an
assembly of tubes, usually made of cast iron, that are attached
to the engine's cylinder head and provide paths through which
burned gases can flow thru the exhaust system.
- The Catalytic Converter is an emissions
control device in the exhaust system, usually containing platinum
or palladium, that is a catalyst for the chemical reaction that converts unburned
hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide into water, vapor, or carbon dioxide, and other hot gases less toxic than untreated exhaust.
- The muffler, a chamber attached
to an engine's exhaust pipe and fitted with baffles or porous
plates, reduces or muffles the noise created by the exhaust.
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